# Electric Resistance Definition | Formula | Explanation

Hence, the opposition offered to the flow of current is called electric resistance. The resistance is represented by R. Unit of electric resistance is ohm and it is denoted by symbol Ω.

The resistance of a conductor depends on the following factors:

- It is directly proportional to the length of the conductor, i.e. R α l
- The resistance of the conductor is inversely proportional to its area of cross-section, i.e. R α 1/a

Therefore, R α l/a

or **R = ρl/a**

Where **ρ** is a constant called resistivity of material by which conductor is made of. It depends upon the nature of the material used in conductor manufacturing. The electric resistance of the conductor also depends upon the temperature of the wire. But it will be discussed later.

The electrical resistance of metals is small in comparison to certain materials like wood, glass, plastic etc. Thus, metals are known as **good conductors** of electric current.

Whereas materials like wood, glass, plastic etc., do not allow the current to pass through them easily and are known as bad conductors or **insulators**.

# Resistivity | Specific Resistance Definition | Explanation | Formula

As we know that, resistance, R = ρl/a

If l = 1m, a = 1m^{2}, then R = ρ

Hence, resistivity or specific resistance of a material may be defined as the resistance offered by the one-meter length of material having an area of the cross-section of one square meter.

We know that, Resistance, R = ρl/a

Or ρ = Ra/l

Putting the units of various quantities as per SI units, we get,

ρ = (ohm x m^{2})/m = ohm-m

**Hence, the unit of resistivity or specific resistance is ohm-meter in SI units. A smaller unit of resistivity is ohm-cm.**

## Combination of Resistances

In many practical applications, two or more resistances are required to be combined. This can be done in two ways: (i) In Series and (ii) In parallel. Sometimes resistances are to be combined in such a way that some resistances are in series and some in parallel. Such a combination is called the mixed grouping.

If in an electrical circuit two or more resistances connected between two points are replaced by a single resistance such that there is no change in the current of the circuit and the potential difference between those two points, then the single resistance is called the ‘equivalent resistance’.

The equivalent resistance connected in series and in parallel is calculated in the following way:

## Combination of Resistances in Series

In this combination, the resistances are connected end to end. Thus the second end of each resistance is joined to the first end of the next resistance and so on.

In this combination, the **same current flows in all the resistances** but the potential differences between their ends are different according to their resistances.

In Figure, three resistors AB, BC and CD are connected in series. Suppose their resistances are R_{1}, R_{2} and R_{3} respectively. Let the equivalent resistance of these resistances be R.

Suppose a current I is flowing in all the three resistances and the potential difference between the ends of the resistances R_{1}, R_{2} and R_{3} are V_{1}, V_{2} and V_{3} respectively.

Then, according to the *definition of resistance*, we have

V_{1} = ** I** R

_{1}, V

_{2}=

**R**

*I*_{2}and V

_{3}=

**R**

*I*_{3}.

If the potential difference between A and D be V, then

V = V

_{1}+ V

_{2}+ V

_{3}=

**R**

*I*_{1}+

**R**

*I*_{2}+

**R**

*I*_{3}

V =

**(R**

*I*_{1}+ R

_{2}+ R

_{3}) …….(i)

The equivalent resistance between A and D is R. Therefore,

V =

**R ……….(i)**

*I*Comparing equation (i) and (ii), we get

**R =**

*I***R**

*I*_{1}+

**R**

*I*_{2}+

**R**

*I*_{2}

**or R = R**

_{1}+ R_{2}+ R_{3}**Thus, the equivalent resistance of the resistance connected in series is equal to the sum of those resistances. It is evident that in series the value of the equivalent resistance is greater than the individual value of each resistance.**

## Combination of Resistances in Parallel

When two or more resistances are combined in such a way that their first ends are connected to one point and the second ends are connected to another point then this combination is in parallel.

**In this combination, the potential difference between the ends of all the resistances is the same but the current in different resistances are different. **

In Figure, three resistances R_{1}, R_{2} and R_{3} are joined in parallel between points A and B. Suppose the current flowing from the cell is ** I**.

At the point A, the current is divided into three parts. Suppose

*I*_{1},

*I*_{2}and

*I*_{3}are the currents in R

_{1}, R

_{2}and R

_{3}respectively. At point B, these currents meet and form the main current

**.**

*I*Thus, we have

**=**

*I*

*I*_{1}+

*I*_{2}+

*I*_{3}……..(i)

Let the potential difference between the points A and B be V. Since each resistance is connected between A and B, the potential difference between the ends of each will be V. Therefore,

*I*_{1 }= V/R

_{1},

*I*_{2}= V/R

_{2},

*I*_{3}= V/R

_{3}

Substituting these values in equation (i), we get

**= V/R**

*I*_{1}+ V/R

_{2}+ V/R

_{3}………..(ii)

If the equivalent resistance between the points A and B be R, then

**= V/R …….(iii)**

*I*Comparing equation (ii) and (ii), we get

V/R = V/R

_{1}+ V/R

_{2}+ V/R

_{3}

or

**1/R = 1/R**

_{1}+ 1/R_{2}+ 1/R_{3}That is, the reciprocal of the equivalent resistance of the resistances connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the reciprocals of those resistances.

**The value of the equivalent resistance of the resistances connected in parallel is less than the value of the smallest resistance among those resistances.**

In our house the various electric appliances like bulbs, fans, heater etc. are connected in parallel to one another and all have their separate switches. Thus each of them has a definite potential difference across it and the current flowing in it does not depend upon whether any other bulb or fan is ON or OFF.

As we close the switches of the other bulbs and fans, the total resistance of the house goes on decreasing and the current drawn from the mains goes on increasing.

## Effect of Temperature on Resistance

Generally, the resistance of every material changes with the change in temperature. The effect of temperature upon resistance varies according to the type of material as discussed below:

**Pure Metals**: The resistance of pure metals like copper, aluminum silver etc. **increases with the increase in temperature**. This increase in resistance is large and uniform for normal ranges of temperature.

**Alloys:** The resistance of alloys increases with increase in temperature but the **increase in resistance is very small and irregular.** In the case of the alloys like **Eureka, Manganin, Constantan etc., the increase in resistance is almost negligible **over a considerable range of temperature.

**Semiconductors, Insulators and Electrolytes**: The resistance of semiconductors, insulators and electrolytes **decreases **with the increase in temperature.

## AC Fundamentals – 2 | Objective Type Question Answers

### #1 From the two voltages equations e1 = Emax sin 100 πt and e2 = Emax sin (100πt + π/6), it is obvious that

2 achieves its maximum value 1/600 second before 1 does

### #2 Capacitive reactance is more when

capacitance is less and frequency of supply is less

### #3 Time constant of a capacitive circuit increases with the

increase of capacitance and increase of resistance

### #4 In a series resonant circuit, the impedance of the circuit is

minimum

### #5 Power factor of an electrical circuit is equal to

all above

### #6 The best place to install a capacitor is

across the terminals of the inductive load

### #7 Poor power factor

results in all above

### #8 Capacitors for power factor correction are rated in

kVAR

### #9 In series resonant circuit, increasing inductance to its twice value and reducing capacitance to its half value

will increase the selectivity of the circuit

### #10 Pure inductive circuit

takes power from the line during some part of the cycle and then return back to it during other part of the cycle

### #11 Inductance affects the direct current flow

at the time of turning on and off

### #12 Inductance of a coil varies

all of the above

### #13 All the rules and laws of D.C. circuit also apply to A.C. circuit containing

resistance only

### #14 Time constant of an inductive circuit

increases with increase of inductance and decrease of resistance

### #15 In a highly capacitive circuit the

reactive power is more than the actual power

### #16 Power factor of the system is kept high

due to all above reasons

### #17 The time constant of the capacitance circuit is defined as the time during which voltage

rises to 63.2% of its final steady value

### #18 In a loss-free R-L-C circuit the transient current is

sinusoidal

### #19 The r.m.s. value of alternating current is given by steady (D.C.) current which when flowing through a given circuit for a given time produces

the same heat as produced by A.C. when flowing through the same circuit

### #20 Magnitude of current at resonance in R-L-C circuit

depends upon the magnitude of R

Do not forget to click the “finish” button to see the correct answers and result.

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