Since a synchronous motor is inherently not self-starting, the following synchronous motor starting methods are adopted generally:
 

Synchronous Motor Starting Methods

 

By Means of Auxiliary Motor

 
In this method, a small induction motor known as pony motor is used to bring the motor speed to synchronous speed. After the speed has reached to its synchronous value, DC field is switched on, motor gets synchronized and then supply to the pony motor is disconnected and it acts as a load on the main motor. In some systems, pony motor is mechanically decoupled.
 
The starting of a synchronous motor by a separate induction motor has the advantage of low in-rush current at the start as the starting motor is of much smaller size. The induction motor is provided with a pair of poles less than the synchronous motor.
 

Damper Winding — Synchronous Motor Starting Methods

 
This is the most common synchronous motor starting method. In this method, the motor is started as squirrel cage induction motor by a providing a special winding on the rotor poles called damper winding.

synchronous motor starting methods

The damper winding is an additional winding included on the rotor side. The construction of damper winding is shown in the figure. This damper winding consists of a number of copper bars embedded into the holes provided on the outer periphery of the rotor and then short-circuiting these bars by brazing them to end rings.  This construction is similar to that of the squirrel cage rotor of an induction motor.
 
When the synchronous motor is connected to three phase supply, the motor starts as a squirrel cage induction motor. As soon as it attains about 95% of synchronous speed, the rotor winding is connected to DC mains and the rotor field is locked with stator field and the motor runs as a synchronous motor.
 
When the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed, the relative velocity between the RMF (rotating magnetic field of stator) and the rotor is zero. Hence the induced EMF and current in damper winding are zero. Hence damper winding is ineffective when the rotor is rotating at synchronous speed but we can use the damper winding for starting the motor. Thus damper winding allows the synchronous motor to be started as a squirrel cage motor and makes it self-starting.
 
When started as an induction motor, the methods of starting are the same as for induction motors, i.e. direct-on-line and reduced voltage starting methods. The motor draws several times its rated current at a low p.f. during starting which may necessitate starting by reduced voltage methods. Where the starting torque is heavy, the motor is provided with a wound-rotor to be started as a slip-ring induction motor.
 
The field is closed through a resistance at the time of starting, which is connected to the d.c. source only when the motor has come up to speed as an induction motor. The application of field current can be manual or automatic.

Synchronous Motor Starting

The figure shows an arrangement with direct-on-line starting and automatic application of the field by a frequency-sensitive relay FR.
 
When the motor is started by pressing the ‘start’ button, Ma and Mb close and current at line frequency is induced through the motor field. This current flows through relay FR as reactor X offers high impedance and through discharge resistance FD. The relay FR picks up rapidly keeping the control circuit of contactor FS open.
 
As the motor speed increases, frequency of induced current through the field winding decreases, with the result that increasing portion of current flows through reactor X till near synchronous speed there is not enough current through the relay FR to hold it. The relay FR opens, the field gets disconnected from the discharge resistance and is connected across the D.C. bus. The motor now pulls into synchronism.
 
It may be remembered that a synchronous motor will fail to start if its field is not shorted through a suitable resistance during starting. Also, if the field circuit opens due to any reason, the motor will be damaged. It is, therefore, essential to maintain the field circuit, collector rings, and carbon brushes in good condition.
 

Why Synchronous Motor is not Self Starting?

 
Assume the number of poles of stator P = 2, then the synchronous speed of the RMF will be = 3000 RPM.
 
So the stator poles N1 and S1 are rotating at a speed of 3000 RPM i.e. very rapidly in the clockwise direction.
 
Initially (at the start), the rotor is in an arbitrary position as shown in Figure.
 
We assume that the rotor is not being driven by any other prime mover.
 
The Figure shows the situation at an instant ‘A’. The rotor is in an arbitrary position. The stator poles S1 and N1 are rotating in clockwise direction.
 
Due to the force of repulsion between the like poles N1 – N2 and S1 – S2, the standstill rotor experiences a torque in the clockwise direction.

 why the synchronous motor is not self-starting

The rotor takes time to accelerate in the clockwise direction due to inertia. Before the rotor can accelerate in the clockwise direction, the stator poles change their polarity quickly.
 
At the instant ‘B’, which occurs a period half after instant ‘A’ the stator poles have acquired new polarity but the rotor is still in the previous position.
 
Now, due to the force of attraction between the unlike poles N1 – S2 and S1 – N2, the standstill rotor experiences a torque in the anticlockwise direction.
 

Thus, in the case of a synchronous motor, standstill rotor is subjected to a torque which is changing its direction at a very high speed, the rotor cannot respond to it due to its inertia and hence remains stationary.

 
This is why the synchronous motor is not self-starting.
 
Thanks for reading about synchronous motor starting methods.
 

Alternators – 3 | Objective Type Question Answers

 

#1 If the space flux distribution is non-sinusoidal, e.m.f. induced in the distributed winding

will be more sinusoidal than flux distribution

#2 Voltage regulation obtained by synchronous impedance method is

more than that given by actual tests

#3 In an alternator short-circuit current is limited by

the unsaturated synchronous impedance

#4 In an alternator, armature reaction is considered equivalent to

fictitious reactance

#5 Synchronus impedance method gives more regulation as compared to ampere-turn method because

armature reaction is considered negligible

#6 Leakage reactance of the armature of a salient pole synchronous machine which varies with the position of the rotor is due to

leakage flux which comes out of slot teeth, crosses the air gap and enters pole faces

#7 Turbo-rotor is made up of

solid steel forging having milled slots for field winding

#8 For the alternators operating in parallel, if the load shared by one of them is to be increased, its field excitation is

to be kept constant but input torque should be increased

#9 Which of the following methods is best for finding the voltage regulation?

Pointer triangle method

#10 For a 3-phase winding with 5 slots per pole per phase and with coil span of 12 slot pitch, the value of pitch factor is

0.951

#11 The power factor of an alternator is determined by its

load

#12 If the input to the prime mover of an alternator is kept constant but the excitation is changed then

the reactive component of the output is changed

#13 For parallel operation, A.C. polyphase alternators must have the same

voltage rating

#14 An alternator running in parallel with other alternators all having automatic voltage regulators is to be taken off the bus. The usual procedure before opening the switch is to

reduce the power fed to the prime-mover

#15 Due to which of the following reasons concentrated winding are not used in alternators ?

Concentrated winding require deep slots for accommodation which leads to increased armature leakage reactance.

#16 A stationary alternator should not be connected to a live bus-bar because it ,

will get short-circuited

#17 The power drawn by the prime-mover of an alternator, under no-load conditions, goes to

meet no-load losses

#18 In a larger generator dampers

increase stability

#19 The choice of field construction, in an alternator, is basically determined by

the kind of energy source available in the geographic location

#20 . The load between two steam-driven alternators operating in parallel may be adjusted by varying

steam supply to their prime movers

finish

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