As we know, in a power transformer,
- the current flowing in the primary winding depends upon the current in the secondary winding whereas,
- in a current transformer current flowing in the primary winding depends upon the current flowing through the line whose current is being measured.
This current is no way controlled by the conditions of the secondary winding circuit of the CT.
Under normal conditions, both primary and secondary windings produce MMF which opposes each other. The primary MMF is slightly more than the secondary MMF and consequently, the resultant MMF is small.
This resultant MMF is responsible for the production of flux in the core and as this MMF is small under normal operating conditions, a small voltage is induced in the secondary winding of the CT.
If the secondary winding is open-circuited with energized primary, the primary MMF remains the same while the opposing secondary winding MMF reduces to zero.
In this condition, the resultant MMF becomes very large. This large MMF produces a large flux in the core till it saturates.
This large flux links with secondary winding and induces a high voltage in the secondary winding. This could be dangerous to the transformer insulation and to the person who has opened the circuit.
Also, the eddy current and hysteresis losses would be very high under these conditions and due to this the CT may be overheated and damaged.
Even it does not occur, the core may become magnetized permanently and this gives considerable ratio and phase angle errors.
Mostly, CTs are provided with a switch or short-circuiting link at the secondary winding terminals. If such a link is available, it should always be short-circuited before any change is made in the secondary winding circuit with primary winding energized.
When a CT is used for measurement, its secondary winding can be short-circuited safely since it is practically short-circuited the impedance of the burden (i.e. an ammeter, CC of wattmeter etc.) is very small.
- Single Phase Transformer Working Principle
- Ideal Transformer on No Load
- Construction of Three Phase Transformer
- Types of Transformers
- Equivalent Resistance and Reactance of Transformer
- Equivalent Circuit of Single Phase Transformer
- Power Loss in a Transformer
- Open Circuit Test of Single Phase Transformer
- Short Circuit Test on Single Phase Transformer
- Transformer Efficiency
- Regulation of Transformer
- Instrument Transformers
- Polarity of Transformer Windings
- Significance of Vector Group of Transformer
- Buchholz Relay Construction | Working
- Why current transformer secondary should not be opened