# Ajay Sharma

## Thevenin Theorem Examples

Thevenin’s theorem is very useful in solving electrical networks which may not be easily solved by other methods. In this article, I will discuss this theorem and show some of the thevenin theorem examples to make this theorem easily understandable. Thévenin’s theorem is a circuit analysis technique that reduces any linear bilateral network to an equivalent …

## Zener Diode Characteristics

When a high reverse-biased voltage applied to a diode may create a high reverse current, which can generate excessive heat and cause a diode to break down. The applied reverse voltage at which the breakdown occurs is called the breakdown voltage, or peak reverse voltage. A special diode called a zener diode is connected to …

## Kirchhoff’s Current Law Examples

The Kirchhoff’s Laws are very useful in solving electrical networks which may not be easily solved by Ohm’s Law. In this article, I will describe the Kirchhoff’s current law and will show some kirchhoff’s current law examples to make this law easily understandable. Kirchhoff’s current law states the following: The summation of currents entering a node …

## LVDT Working Principle & Advantages

Hi friends, in this article, I am going to discuss about lvdt working principle, lvdt advantages and disadvantages. My article will increase your knowledge, I hope so.   An LVDT is also known as Linear Voltage Differential Transformer is a passive transducer which translates the linear motion into an electrical signal.   It consists of …

## Synchronization of Alternators

The procedure of connecting an alternator in parallel with another or with common bus bars is called synchronization of alternator. Conditions for Synchronization of Alternators For proper synchronization of alternator, the following conditions must be fulfilled: The terminal voltage of the incoming alternator must be equal to that of the bus bars voltage. The speed …

## Wiegand Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The Wiegand effect relates to the nonlinear magnetization behavior of a Wiegand wire that switches its polarity under a strong magnetic field. A Wiegand wire is a low-carbon Vicalloy (a family of cobalt–iron–vanadium alloys) wire, typically consisting of 52% cobalt, 37.37% iron, 10% vanadium, 0.4% manganese, 0.2% silicon, and only 0.03% carbon. The features of …

## Barkhausen Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The Barkhausen effect relates magnetism to acoustics. In 1919, a German scientist Heinrich Barkhausen found that whenever he moved a magnet close to an iron-cored wire, an audible roaring sound (called Barkhausen noise or Barkhausen emission) was heard through an amplified speaker. The sound reflects a sudden (instead of a smooth or gradual) shifting or …

## Magnetostrictive Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The magnetostrictive effect relates a material’s elastic state to its magnetic state. Nearly all FM materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloy, exhibit a change in size and shape resulting from magnetization change. This effect is known as Joule effect. Joule effect can be understood by considering an FM material consisting of many …

## Hall Sensor Working Principle

When a current flows through a thin flat conductor placed in a magnetic field, the magnetic field exerts a transverse force (i.e., Lorentz force) on the moving charge carriers and pushes them to one side of the conductor. The charge then builds up and forms a measurable voltage between the two sides of the conductor. …

## Fluxgate Sensor Principle

Fluxgate sensors are precise vector sensors of magnetic fields (can measure both magnitude and direction). A fluxgate sensor uses a soft magnetic material (with a low coercive force/field and high permeability) as its core material and operates under magnetic saturation state. In saturation, the permeability of the core drops, causing the flux associated with the …