It is a single-phase motor whose operation depends upon the hysteresis effect i.e. magnetization produced in a ferromagnetic material lags behind the magnetizing force.
Construction of Hysteresis Motor
It consists of:
- a stator using permanent capacitor type construction. Both the windings (i.e. main as well as starting winding) remain connected in the circuit during running operation as well as at the start. The value of capacitance is so adjusted as to result in a flux revolving at synchronous speed.
- a rotor consisting of a smooth cylinder of magnetically hard steel, without winding or teeth.
Hysteresis Motor Working Principle
- When the stator is energized from a single-phase supply, a synchronously-revolving field (assumed in the anticlockwise direction) is produced due to split-phase operation.
- The revolving stator flux magnetizes the rotor. Due to hysteresis effect, the axis of magnetization of the rotor will lag behind the axis of stator field by hysteresis lag angle α as shown in the figure. If the rotor is stationary, the starting torque produced is given by:
- After starting, the rotor rotates at synchronous speed with a uniform torque. Because φr and φs are now constant. When the rotor accelerates, the lag angle α remains constant since the angle α depends merely upon the hysteresis loop of the rotor and is independent of the rate at which the loop is traversed. The motor, therefore, develops constant torque from the standstill to synchronous speed.
- After reaching synchronism, the motor continues to run at synchronous speed and adjusts to run at synchronous speed and adjusts its torque angle so as to develop the torque required by the load.
Ts α φsφrsinα
Where, φs = stator flux
φr = rotor flux
Characteristics of Hysteresis Motor
- A hysteresis motor can synchronize any load which it can accelerate, no matter how great the inertia. It is because the torque is uniform from standstill to synchronous speed.
- Hysteresis motor produces very smooth and soundless rotation.
- The rotor takes on the same number of poles as the stator field. Thus by changing the number of stator poles through pole-changing connection, we can get a set of synchronous speeds for the motor.
Hysteresis Motor Applications
While audio recording, noise less operation of recording equipment is very essential. Due to quiet operation and ability to derive high-inertia loads, hysteresis motors are used for timing devices and precision audio-equipment.
Thanks for reading about hysteresis motor working principle.
Single Phase Motors – 5 | Objective Type Question Answers
#1 In universal motor, normally the ratio of width of brush to the width of commutator segments is
#2 Shading coils in case of a shaded pole motor, are used to
produce rotating magnetic field
#3 Which motor has unsymmetrical rotor?
#4 If a single-phase motor runs hot the probable cause cannot be
#5 For ceiling fans generally the single phase motor used is
permanent capacitor type
#6 The direction of rotation of universal motor can be reversed by
interchanging the brush lends
#7 Which of the following is most economical method of starting a single-phase induction motor?
#8 When a universal motor is operated on no-bad, its speed is limited by
windage and friction
#9 What could be the size of a universal motor for use in vacuum cleaners ?
#10 Which of the following applications make use of a universal motor?
#11 Reluctance motors are
#12 Which motor will make least noise?
#13 Which motor is relatively free from mechanical and magnetic vibrations?
#14 A single-phase capacitor-start motor will take starting current nearly
twice the full load current
#15 For a system involving sound recording and reproduction which motor would you select ?
#16 For the same rating which of the follow motors has the highest starting torque ?
#17 A capacitor selected for capacitor-run motor should be rated for
#18 If the ceiling fan, when switched on, runs at slow speed in the reverse direction, it can be concluded that
capacitor is ineffective
#19 By pushing and pulling the rotor shaft of a motor, we can check its
#20 Electrical faults in a motor occur most commonly in its
Do not forget to click the “finish” button to see the correct answers and result.