Lightning and Switching Voltage Protection Methods

Most insulations fail during one of the following events: Switching overvoltage due to the inductive and capacitive energy of the system overshooting the system voltage that can be as high as 2 × rated voltage. This is analogous to overpressure due to water hammer when a water pipe is suddenly shut off (switched-off). Lightning overvoltage …

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Kirchhoff’s Current Law Examples

The Kirchhoff’s Laws are very useful in solving electrical networks which may not be easily solved by Ohm’s Law. In this article, I will describe the Kirchhoff’s current law and will show some kirchhoff’s current law examples to make this law easily understandable. Kirchhoff’s current law states the following: The summation of currents entering a node …

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Synchronization of Alternators

The procedure of connecting an alternator in parallel with another or with common bus bars is called synchronization of alternator. Conditions for Synchronization of Alternators For proper synchronization of alternator, the following conditions must be fulfilled: The terminal voltage of the incoming alternator must be equal to that of the bus bars voltage. The speed …

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Wiegand Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The Wiegand effect relates to the nonlinear magnetization behavior of a Wiegand wire that switches its polarity under a strong magnetic field. A Wiegand wire is a low-carbon Vicalloy (a family of cobalt–iron–vanadium alloys) wire, typically consisting of 52% cobalt, 37.37% iron, 10% vanadium, 0.4% manganese, 0.2% silicon, and only 0.03% carbon. The features of …

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