The electric power can be transmitted either by means of AC or DC system. Each system has its own merits and demerits. To make the comparison of AC and DC transmission system, it is desirable to discuss the technical advantages and disadvantages of the two systems.
Advantages of High Voltage DC Transmission System
- It requires only two conductors for transmission as compared to three conductors in an AC system and it is also possible to transmit power through only one conductor by using earth as returning conductor causing much saving in conductor material (copper or aluminum).
- Inductance, capacitance, phase displacement and surge problems are eliminated in DC transmission.
- There is no skin effect in DC, therefore, the entire cross-section of the line conductor is utilized. Thus, conductor offers less resistance.
- Since there is no inductance and capacitance, the voltage drop in a DC transmission line is less than an AC line for the same sending end voltage and load. Therefore, a DC transmission line has better voltage regulation.
- For the same working voltage, the potential stress on the insulation (in the case of DC system is 70% (1/√2times) of that in AC system. Hence, a DC line requires less insulation.
- There is less corona loss in a DC line which reduces the interference with communication circuits.
- There are no stability problems and synchronizing difficulties in the DC transmission.
Disadvantages of the High Voltage DC Transmission System
- Electric power cannot be generated at high voltages in the DC, system due to commutating difficulties.
- For the transmission of power at the high voltages, the DC voltages cannot be stepped up.
- The DC switchgear (i.e. circuit breakers) have their own limitations.
Nowadays, high voltage AC transmission system (3-phase, 3-wire) is invariably employed. To make the comparison of AC and DC transmission system following advantages and disadvantages of a high voltage AC transmission system should be kept in mind:
Advantages of High Voltage AC Transmission System
- The AC power can be generated at high voltages (33 kV or 11 kV).
- The AC voltage can be stepped up easily and efficiently to the economical limit for transmission by transformers. It can also be stepped down by transformers to any value as per requirement for distribution and utilization.
- The maintenance of AC switchgear is easy and cheaper.
Disadvantages of High Voltage AC Transmission System
- It requires more conductor material (copper or aluminum).
- The construction of an AC transmission line is more complex than DC transmission line.
- Due to skin effect, the effective resistance of AC line is more which increases the losses and correspondingly decreases the efficiency of transmission.
- Due to inductance and capacitance, the voltage drop in the AC line is more than the DC line for the same sending end voltage and load. This makes the voltage regulation poor.
- The AC transmission lines have more corona loss which creates interference in communication circuits.
Comparison of AC and DC Transmission System
A 3-phase, 3-wire AC system is employed for transmission of electric power because in this case power at high voltage can be generated and the voltage can be stepped up and stepped down very easily and efficiently by using transformers.
However, in the above comparison of AC and DC transmission, it is clear that high voltage DC transmission is superior to high voltage AC transmission.
Therefore, it is preferred to adopt high voltage DC transmission. This can be achieved by using rectifiers and inverters to convert AC into DC and vice-versa easily and efficiently. The present day trend is towards AC for generation and distribution and high voltage DC for transmission.
The 3-phase AC power is generated at the generating station and voltage is stepped up by transformer T1, located at the sending end. Then AC is converted into high voltage DC by rectifiers and power is transmitted. Then at the receiving station DC is converted into AC by inverters and a transformer T2 steps down the voltage as per requirement for distribution of electric power.
A graph, cost versus transmission distance for AC transmission and DC transmission (HVDC – High Voltage DC Transmission ) is shown in Figure. It is clear from the graph that AC transmission is economical for smaller transmission distances whereas DC transmission is economical for larger transmission distances.
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Transmission and Distribution — 1 | Objective Type Question Answers
#1 ……………. are the conductors, which connect the consumer’s terminals to the distribution.
#2 The underground system cannot be operated above
#3 The usual spans with R.C.C. poles are
80 – 100 metres
#4 The corona is considerably affected by which of the following?
All of the above
#5 Which of the following are the constants of the transmission lines ?
All of the above
#6 The phenomenon of rise in voltage at the receiving end of the open-circuited or lightly loaded line is called the
#7 The square root of the ratio of line impedance and shunt admittance is called
surge impedance of the line
#8 Which of the following is the demerit of a ‘constant voltage transmission system’ ?
Increase of short-circuit current of the system
#9 Which of the following is the source of heat generation in the cables ?
all of the above
#10 Due to which of the following reasons, the cables should not be operated too hot?
all of the above
#11 Which of the following D.C. distribution system is the simplest and lowest in first cost?
#12 A booster is a
series wound generator
#13 Besides a method of trial and error, which of the following methods is employed for solution of network problems in interconnected system ?
All of the above
#14 Which of the following faults is most likely to occur in cables ?
Breakdown of cable insulation
#15 The cause of damage to the lead sheath of a cable is
all of the above
#16 The distributors for residential areas are
three phase four wire
#17 The conductors of the overhead lines are
#18 High voltage transmission lines use
#19 Multi-core cables generally use
sector shaped conductors
#20 The material commonly used for insulation in high voltage cables is
#21 The loads on distributors are generally
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- Electrical Power Transmission System
- Comparison of AC and DC Transmission
- Kelvin Law For Economic Size of Conductor
- Transmission Line Conductor Material
- Insulators Used in Overhead Transmission Lines
- Poles | Towers for Transmission Lines
- Skin & Proximity Effect in Overhead Transmission Lines
- Efficiency | Voltage Regulation of Transmission Line
- Corona Effect in Transmission Lines
- Electrical Power Distribution System
- Connection Schemes in Power Distribution System
- Distributor Types in Power Distribution System
- Underground Cables Construction
- Electrical Cable Classification
- Advantages of High Voltage Transmission