Types of DC Motors

On the basis of armature and field winding connection, following are the main types of dc motors:

  • DC shunt motor
  • DC series motor
  • Compound motors
  • Separately excited DC motors
  • Permanent magnet DC motors

DC Shunt Motor

 
In the DC shunt motor, the armature and field winding are connected in parallel as shown in the figure.

types of dc motors graphic

 
The field winding consists of a large number of turns of fine wire. The cross-sectional area of the wire used for field winding of shunt motor is always smaller than that of the wire used for the armature winding. Therefore, the resistance of field winding is more than that of the armature winding.
 
Voltage and Current Relations for DC Shunt Motor
 
Total current drawn from the voltage source I = Ia + Ish
 
Where Ia = armature current
Ish (field current) = V/Rsh
 
Since the applied voltage (V) and the field resistance (Rsh) are almost constant, therefore field current (Ish) remains constant. As the field current is responsible for flux generation so the flux produced in the shunt motor also remains constant. This is why shunt motor is also known as constant flux motors.
 
Therefore flux, φ α Ish (constant)
 
Supply voltage V = Eb + IaRa
 
Where Eb = back EMF
Ra = armature resistance.
 

DC Series Motor

 

types of dc motors

 
In the DC series motor, the armature and field windings are connected in series with each other. The field winding of DC series motor consists of few turns of thick wire. Therefore, the resistance of the series field winding (Rs) is much smaller as compared to that of the armature resistance.
 
Voltage and Current Relations
 
As armature and the field winding are in series, therefore,
 
I = Ia = Is
 
Where I = total current drawn by the motor
Ia = armature current
Is = series field current
 
Total supply voltage V is given by,
 
V = Eb + Ia(Ra + Rs)
 
Eb = back EMF
Ia = armature current
Ra = armature resistance
Rs = series field resistance.
 
In the DC motors flux produced is proportional to the field current. But in the series motor, the field current is same as the armature current. Thus the armature current (Ia) and hence field current is load dependent. So with the increase in load flux also increases. Therefore, DC series motor is a variable flux motor.
 

DC Compound Motors

 
Shunt and series, both the field windings are present in compound motors. In these motors, a part of the field winding is connected across the armature and remaining field winding is connected in series with the armature. These compound motors are further subdivided into two types, namely, cumulative compound and differential compound.
 
Cumulative Compound Motor

types of dc motors yourelectricalguide.com

 
In the cumulative compound motor, shunt and series field winding is connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is same in both the field windings i.e. series field flux strengthens the field due to shunt field winding.
 
Differential Compound Motor
 
In the differential compound motor, shunt and series field winding is connected in such a way that the direction of flow of current is opposite in both the field windings i.e. series field flux weakens the field due to shunt field winding.
 

Separately Excited DC Motor

 

types of dc motors image

 
In these motors, the armature and field coils are fed from different supply sources. Very accurate speed control can be obtained by these motors. Moreover, these motors are best suited for the applications where speed variation is required from very low value to high value.
 

Permanent Magnet DC Motor

 
In these motors, the magnetic field is produced by small magnets. These motors are made in very small sizes and ratings. These motors are used where very small driving torque is required like toys.
 

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