Instrumentation

Wiegand Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The Wiegand effect relates to the nonlinear magnetization behavior of a Wiegand wire that switches its polarity under a strong magnetic field. A Wiegand wire is a low-carbon Vicalloy (a family of cobalt–iron–vanadium alloys) wire, typically consisting of 52% cobalt, 37.37% iron, 10% vanadium, 0.4% manganese, 0.2% silicon, and only 0.03% carbon. The features of …

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Barkhausen Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The Barkhausen effect relates magnetism to acoustics. In 1919, a German scientist Heinrich Barkhausen found that whenever he moved a magnet close to an iron-cored wire, an audible roaring sound (called Barkhausen noise or Barkhausen emission) was heard through an amplified speaker. The sound reflects a sudden (instead of a smooth or gradual) shifting or …

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Magnetostrictive Sensor Working Principle & Applications

The magnetostrictive effect relates a material’s elastic state to its magnetic state. Nearly all FM materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt, and their alloy, exhibit a change in size and shape resulting from magnetization change. This effect is known as Joule effect. Joule effect can be understood by considering an FM material consisting of many …

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Characteristics of Strain Gauges

The core element of a piezoresistive sensor is the strain gauge. The characteristics of a strain gauge are mainly defined by the gauge dimensions, resistance, gauge factor, temperature coefficient, resistivity, and thermal stability. Gauge dimensions and shape are very important in choosing a right type of strain gauge for a given application. Gauge resistance is …

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Characteristics of Photoresistor Sensor 

When electromagnetic radiation, such as, infrared light, visible light, or ultraviolet (UV) light, strikes a photoconductive material, the resistance of the material decreases. This occurs because the electrons in the valence band of the photoconductive material are excited by the light and move to the conduction band, which increases the material’s conductivity. The amount of …

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