# PLC

## Troubleshooting of PLC

Troubleshooting of PLC In the event of a PLC fault, you should employ a careful and systematic approach to troubleshoot the system to resolve the problem. PLCs are relatively easy to troubleshoot because the control program can be displayed on a monitor and watched in real time as it executes. If a control system has […]

## Installation and Commissioning of PLC

Installation and Commissioning of PLC A PLC system, if installed properly, should give years of trouble-free service. The design of PLCs includes a number of rugged features that allow them to be installed in almost any industrial environment. However, problems can occur if the system is not installed properly. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) require protection

## PLC Shift Register Instructions & Programs

This article explains how the PLC shift register functions operate and how it can be applied to control problems. Shift registers are often used to track parts on automated manufacturing lines by shifting either status or values through data files. PLC Shift Register Instructions & Programs The PLC not only uses a fixed pattern of

## PLC Sequencer Instructions & Programs

PLC Sequencer Instructions This article explains how the PLC sequencer functions operate and how they can be applied to control problems. The sequencer instruction evolved from the mechanical drum switch, and it can handle complex sequencing control problems more easily than does the drum switch. Mechanical Sequencers Sequencer instructions are designed to operate much like

## PLC Math Instructions

Most PLCs have arithmetic function capabilities. Basic PLC math instructions include add, subtract, multiply and divide to calculate the sum, difference, product, and quotient of the content of word registers. The PLC is capable of doing many arithmetic operations per scan period for fast updating of data. This article covers the basic mathematical instructions performed

## PLC Data Manipulation Programs

PLC Data Manipulation Programs Data manipulation instructions give new dimension and flexibility to the programming of control circuits. For example, consider the hardwired relay-operated, time-delay circuit in Figure 1 . This circuit uses three electro-mechanical time-delay relays to control four solenoid valves. The operation of the hardwired circuit can be summarized as follows: The hardwired time-delay

## Data Manipulation Instructions in PLC

Data manipulation involves transferring data and operating on data with math functions, data conversions, data comparison, and logical operations. This article covers both data manipulation instructions that operate on word data and those that operate on file data, which involve multiple words. Data manipulations are performed internally in a manner similar to that used in

## Control Instructions in PLC

The program control instructions covered in this article are used to alter the program scan from its normal sequence. The use of program control instructions can shorten the time required to complete a program scan. Portions of the program not being utilized at any particular time can be jumped over, and outputs in specific zones

## Counter Instructions in PLC

All PLCs include both up-counters and down-counters. Counter instructions and their function in ladder logic are explained in this article. Typical examples of PLC counters include the following: straight counting in a process, two counters used to give the sum of two counts, and two counters used to give the difference between two counts. Counter

## Timer Instructions in PLC

The most commonly used PLC instruction, after coils and contacts, is the timer. This article deals with how timers time intervals and the way in which they can control outputs. We discuss the basic PLC on-delay timer function, as well as other timing functions derived from it, and typical industrial timing tasks. Timer Instructions in